Ethanol Fuel History #history,ethanol,article,ethanol #fuel,fuel #test #kit,fuel,gas,gas #pump,e10,e85,dangers,problems,renewable #fuel,corn,reformulated #fuel,marine,marine #fuel,automobile #fuel,alcohol #fuel,ethanol #alcohol,water #in #fuel,marine #engine #fuel,auto,vehicle,environment,mtbe,ban,epa,politics,organization,association,corn #fuel,testing,phase #separation,vapor #lock,warning,


#

In 1908, Ford Motor Company’s first car, The Model T, used ethanol corn alcohol gasoline as fuel energy.

Since 2003, ethanol has grown rapidly as the oxygenating factor for gasoline. Ethanol replaced MTBE for oxygenating fuel, since almost all states now have banned MTBE, due to groundwater contamination, health and environmental concerns.

Ethanol blend fuels for gas powered engines have been around for over 100 years; Ethanol is now found at most public gas stations nationwide, due to mandates/laws and recommendations in the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (1988), Clean Air Act (1990), Energy Policy Act (2005) and most importantly – The Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS) – Signed September 2006.

The push for ethanol as an alternative to imported oil spurred the construction of 172 plants in 25 states by the end of 2008. But during 2009 falling oil prices has made ethanol less cost effective. More than 20 plants have recently closed.

Despite 10% being the universally accepted legal limit for ethanol in conventional gas-powered engines,

in March 2009 ACE, Growth Energy and 54 ethanol producers submitted a waiver application to increase E10 to E15.

ETHANOL HISTORY TIMELINE

1826 Samuel Morey developed an engine that ran on ethanol and turpentine.

1850’s During the Civil War, a liquor tax was placed on ethanol whisky, also called Moonshine, to raise money for the war.

1876 Otto Cycle was the first combustion engine designed to use alcohol and gasoline.

1896 Henry Ford built his first automobile, the quadricycle, to run on pure ethanol.

1920’s Standard Oil began adding ethanol to gasoline to increase octane and reduce engine knocking.

1908 The first Ford Motor Company automobile, Henry Ford’s Model T. was designed to use corn alcohol, called ethanol. The Model T ran on (ethanol) alcohol, fuel or a combination of the two fuels.

1940’s First U.S. fuel ethanol plant built. The U.S. Army built and operated an ethanol plant in Omaha, Nebraska, to produce fuel for the army and to provide ethanol for regional fuel blending.

1940’s to late 1970’s Virtually no commercial fuel ethanol was sold to the general public in the U.S. – due to the low price of gasoline fuel.

1975 U.S. begins to phase out lead in gasoline. MTBE eventually replaced lead.

Note: Later, between 2004 to 2006, MTBE banned in almost all states, due to groundwater contamination and health risks.

1980’s Oxygenates added to gasoline included MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether – made from natural gas and petroleum) and ETBE (Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether – made from ethanol and petroleum).

1988 Denver, Colorado, was the first state to mandate ethanol oxygenates fuels for winter use to control carbon monoxide emissions. Other cities soon followed.

1990 Clean Air Act Amendments – Mandated the winter use of oxygenated fuels in 39 major carbon monoxide non-attainment areas (based on EPA emissions standards for carbon dioxide not being met) and required year-round use of oxygenates in 9 severe ozone non-attainment areas in 1995.

1992 The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) was passed by Congress to reduce our nation’s dependence on imported petroleum by requiring certain fleets to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, which are capable of operating on nonpetroleum fuels.

The Clean Air Act (1990) and Alternative Motor Fuels Act (1998 1992) contain provisions for mandating oxygenated fuel (RFG =Ethanol and MTBE). Requirements set for 2 types of clean-burning gasoline, RFG Federal Reformulated Gasoline and Wintertime Oxygenated Fuel.

1995 The EPA began requiring the use of reformulated gasoline year round in metropolitan areas with the most smog.


Extended-Warranty Warning #auto #seller


#extended auto warranty
#

Extended-Warranty Warning

By Jessica L. Anderson | December 2009

You must read the fine print on your car warranties.

John Pallay of Mansfield, Ohio, found out the hard way that automobile extended warranties can be a raw deal. Pallay recently wrote to Kiplinger’s to relate his tale of warranty woe: When he bought a used 2002 Pontiac Sunfire nearly three years ago, he also bought a $2,000 extended warranty from National Auto Care (now called NAC). Since then, Pallay writes, he has shelled out $1,400 for repairs — and his policy has paid just $30. Some parts that needed replacement were excluded from coverage. Other repairs weren’t covered because the breakdown was caused by a noncovered part.

Hit and miss. Extended warranties consistently inhabit top-ten lists of consumer complaints for a good reason: They often make it difficult to cash in. The language may, for example, obfuscate what is covered and what isn’t so that you end up footing the bill instead of the company backing the contract. The fine print may include a per-item deductible instead of a per-visit one, meaning you could rack up several deductibles in one trip to the shop. Diagnostic fees may not be covered if the part that’s found to be causing the problem isn’t covered. The reimbursed labor rate may be less than what your shop charges. And the warranty may be subject to termination if you don’t follow its maintenance schedule.

Advertisement

Some high-profile warranty companies have gone bankrupt, leaving customers in the lurch. And some 40 state attorneys general have investigated a massive phone and direct-marketing campaign that was waged last year. The companies involved sent out mailings that appeared to be from a car dealer or manufacturer to sell often-worthless warranties.

If those caveats don’t scare you off, the high cost of extended warranties may. According to F it’s better if the dealership is paid directly. Finally, haggle for a lower price. The Consumer Reports survey found that 75% of people who negotiated won a discount.

If you do sign but develop buyer’s remorse, don’t throw up your hands. In most states, you have the right to cancel within 30 days of signing a contract if you haven’t used the policy.


Teen Drug Abuse of Cough Medicine: Warning Signs #cough #medicine, #cold #medicine, #adolescent, #teen, #warning #signs, #otc, #over #the #counter #drug #abuse, #signs #of #drug #use, #signs #of #drug #abuse, #nonprescription #drug #abuse, #mood #swings, #weight #changes, #sleep #patterns, #rage, #grades, #study #habits, #friends


#

Next Article:

Skip to Article Content

  • 9 Warning Signs of Teen Drug Abuse Would you know if your teen was abusing cough and cold medicine?
  • Hiding Drugs in Plain Sight DXM is in almost every home. Are you tempting your teen?
  • Checklist: How to Help Your Teen Hands-on advice about how to help protect your teen from drugs.
  • The Rise in Cough Medicine Abuse It’s cheap, easy to get — and very dangerous.
  • One Girl’s Story of Addiction Kristin was just 15 when she first tried getting high on cough medicine.
  • A Mother’s Struggle She says she should have seen the signs. She had no idea her daughter was in trouble.
  • How Kids Get Hooked They say, “What’s the big deal? It’s only cough syrup!”
  • Teens Take a Stand The truth? Most teens don’t use drugs. These tips can help teens take a stand.
  • Making the Right Decisions Check out these common situations. How would you react?
  • Role Playing for Teens and Parents Read over these scenarios together. Act them out with your teen.
  • Tips on Teachable Moments Your teen needs more than a single “talk” about drugs.
  • Common Drug Slang Have you heard these words? Get to know drug slang to help protect your child.
  • 5 Teen Behavior Problems Does your teen defy you a lot? Here’s how to nip behavior problems in the bud.
  • Teens and Peer Pressure Friends play a subtle role in your child’s decisions.
  • When Teens Lie About Drugs It’s a fact: Teens lie about drugs — and too often parents believe them.
  • Teen Depression: Symptoms and Tips Many teens are irritable or moody. How can you tell when it’s really depression?
  • 5 Mistakes Parents Make The top mistakes parents make with tweens and teens — and how to avoid them.
  • Monitoring Your Teen Online Should you monitor your teen’s online activity? Here are points to consider.
  • Teen Privacy: When to Cross the Line Do the dangers of drug abuse override your teen’s right to privacy?
  • Friends: A Bad Influence? 9 Things to Do When You’re Worried
  • 10 Things to Tell Your Teen Real-life advice and how to get through.
  • Preparing Tweens for Middle School Get tips to help your tween cope with this exciting but risky time.

Spotting Teen Drug Abuse of Cough Medicine: Tips for Parents

How do you know if your teen is abusing cough or cold medicines? Experts say the signs of teen drug abuse or misuse tend to be the same, regardless of the type of drug being abused, whether legal or illegal. Here are some signs of teen drug abuse to look for:

  • Grades. Have your teen’s grades or study habits declined? Sometimes, drug abuse can send a straight-A student to the verge of flunking out. Often, a sign of drug abuse is a slump that’s not quite so dramatic. A teenager might become less diligent about handing in assignments, forget to study for tests, stop participating in class, or skip classes altogether.
  • Friends. Has your teen stopped hanging around with usual friends? Have new faces – including some that might make you uneasy — suddenly started to appear? Your teenager may abandon long-term friends, especially if they are not involved in the same abusive behavior.
  • Mood. Have you noticed mood swings in your teen? Has your teenager become oddly manic, suddenly furious, sad, or listless? These can sometimes be a sign of drug abuse. You may notice that your teen also spends more time alone, away from family.
  • Appearance. Has your teen’s appearance changed significantly? You may notice that your teen has been wearing the same shirt for a few days, stopped showering regularly, or completely changed his or her style of clothing.
  • Eating. Have you noticed any big changes in how your teen is eating, either more or less? You should not ignore any changes in weight .
  • Sleep . Has your teen’s sleep pattern changed? Depending on the drug being abused, he or she might suddenly seem to sleep all day – or never seem to sleep at all.
  • Secretiveness. Has your teen become excessively secretive about after-school activities, or strangely anxious if you get anywhere near his or her belongings?
  • Sickness. Does your teen frequently ask for cough or cold medicine? Obviously, you don’t want to dismiss signs that your child is sick with a cold or respiratory infection. But if your teen is always demanding medicine for a cough. it could be a sign of drug abuse.
  • Hidden trash. Have you found empty bottles of medicine or empty packages in the trash? If your teen is buying cough medicine on his own, and using it without telling you, it could be a sign of drug abuse.

These signs don’t prove your teen is abusing over-the-counter drugs; after all, mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and secretiveness are a part of adolescence. But if you notice anything different about your child, it may be time for a talk. Read on to learn more about how to address the subject with him or her.


Extended-Warranty Warning #paris #auto #show


#extended auto warranty
#

Extended-Warranty Warning

By Jessica L. Anderson | December 2009

You must read the fine print on your car warranties.

John Pallay of Mansfield, Ohio, found out the hard way that automobile extended warranties can be a raw deal. Pallay recently wrote to Kiplinger’s to relate his tale of warranty woe: When he bought a used 2002 Pontiac Sunfire nearly three years ago, he also bought a $2,000 extended warranty from National Auto Care (now called NAC). Since then, Pallay writes, he has shelled out $1,400 for repairs — and his policy has paid just $30. Some parts that needed replacement were excluded from coverage. Other repairs weren’t covered because the breakdown was caused by a noncovered part.

Hit and miss. Extended warranties consistently inhabit top-ten lists of consumer complaints for a good reason: They often make it difficult to cash in. The language may, for example, obfuscate what is covered and what isn’t so that you end up footing the bill instead of the company backing the contract. The fine print may include a per-item deductible instead of a per-visit one, meaning you could rack up several deductibles in one trip to the shop. Diagnostic fees may not be covered if the part that’s found to be causing the problem isn’t covered. The reimbursed labor rate may be less than what your shop charges. And the warranty may be subject to termination if you don’t follow its maintenance schedule.

Advertisement

Some high-profile warranty companies have gone bankrupt, leaving customers in the lurch. And some 40 state attorneys general have investigated a massive phone and direct-marketing campaign that was waged last year. The companies involved sent out mailings that appeared to be from a car dealer or manufacturer to sell often-worthless warranties.

If those caveats don’t scare you off, the high cost of extended warranties may. According to F it’s better if the dealership is paid directly. Finally, haggle for a lower price. The Consumer Reports survey found that 75% of people who negotiated won a discount.

If you do sign but develop buyer’s remorse, don’t throw up your hands. In most states, you have the right to cancel within 30 days of signing a contract if you haven’t used the policy.


Police Lights LED Warning Emergency Strobe Light Bar #buy #cheap #cars


#auto led lights
#

Police Lights LED Auto Parts Spoilers Bulbs & Accessories

Police Strobe Lights & EMS – We carry a large selection of strobes for Headlights, tail lights, back decks, magnetic roof strobes and sirens with speakers with the all new phaser sound. We provide the greatest selection of Police Lights and sounds for your car at the best prices. Our products include LED headlight Hide away strobes, mini lightbars, visor strobes, grille strobes, and strobes for interior and exterior.

Police Sirens – We carry a large selection of polce sirens to be used for police and emergency vehicles. High quality and the lowest prices on the market.

Car Wings & Spoilers – High Wings, mid wings, and spoilers can give any car a more sporty look. All of our wings and spoilers are brand new crafted from either high quality fiberglass, polyurethane, or abs plastic. We also have aluminum spoilers or factory style painted spoilers. Buy a wing or spoiler today!

Car Headlights – Our high quality headlights will add a more custom look to your car! Every purchase comes with a set of 2 headlights. We carry Headlight projectors with Halo available in clear lense or blue lense. We have projector headlights available in carbon fiber, jdm black, and chrome housing.

Car Tail Lights – We carry tail lights for a broad selection of cars. We have LED tail lights, with red lense, smoke lense, black housing, or carbon fiber. Tail lights include Altezza, Euro, or JDM. The perfect way to modify your car! Easy to install within minutes on most vehicles.

Cat-Back Exhaust – Why buy an exhaust that only comes with a big sound when you can purchase one here for power increase, performance increase, and overall looks as well? All cat back exhaust come in the perfect size and tubing length. Mufflers are mirror polished.

Mesh Billet Grille – Customize your vehicle with our wide selection of mesh body kit billet grilles. We carry Body Kit aluminum mesh for customizing your kits. We have a large selection of aluminum and stainless steel billet grilles. We also carry custom made BMW stainless steel mesh grille kits for 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, 850 and the Z4. Buy your new mesh billet grille today!

HID Bulbs Ballast – HID Bulbs D2S D2R D1S D1R D4R D4S 4300K 6000K 8000K at great prices! Name brand HID Bulbs including Nokya, Luminics, Pure Blue, Philips, Osram, Hid replacement bulbs and ballasts. We also carry a Lincoln Mark VIII HID replacement kit. Buy your HID Bulbs today!

LED Light Products – LED Light Accessories, LED Strobes, LEDs with resistors and wires attached, LED Neon Tubes, LED motorcycle Lighting Pods, and many more! Buy yours today! Light your vehicle at night and grab some attention!

Gear Shift Knobs – Gear Shift Knobs for Automatic transmission or Manual transmission. Aluminum shift knobs in every color including burlwood, chrome, leather, and carbon fiber. High quality shift knobs will optimize your interior and make your automatic shift knob look like a manual shift knob.

Under Car Lights – Advanced LED undercar lighting kit available! Great way to make your car stand out using a wireless remote. We also have Windshield Washer Lights for the hood of your car. Available are the UFO undercar light, Seven color LED under car light, Multi color undercar light, or single color undercar light.

Carbon Fiber Interior – Comes in Carbon Fiber vinyl or Burlwood vinyl by Avery. Excellent for interior and exterior use! Hayme Real Carbon fiber material. Apply to spoilers, dash boards, bezels, etc. Get yours today!

Auto Accessories – Includes Cigarette Lighter Adaptor, Basic 12V Switch, Remote Control, Wireless Switch, 4 Channel, 6 function switch box, LED flashers, sho me flasher, control boxes.

Wire Harness – Harness with or without relay! Male and female harness. Buy H11, H1, H3, H4, H8, H9, 9004, 9005, 9006, 9005xs, 9006 xs, 9007 light bulbs and more!

Graphic Decals – Huge selection between hundreds of different decal designs! Including magnetic, stick on decals, and stick on gauge bezels, and more!

SUV Truck Accessories – SUV Truck accessories includes accessories such as shift knobs, steering wheels, bolts, trim pieces and more! Cccessories that can change the look of your car!

Performance Parts – Include coil overs, turbo timers, performace air filters which add performance to your engine!


Police Lights LED Warning Emergency Strobe Light Bar #mercedes #auto


#auto led lights
#

Police Lights LED Auto Parts Spoilers Bulbs & Accessories

Police Strobe Lights & EMS – We carry a large selection of strobes for Headlights, tail lights, back decks, magnetic roof strobes and sirens with speakers with the all new phaser sound. We provide the greatest selection of Police Lights and sounds for your car at the best prices. Our products include LED headlight Hide away strobes, mini lightbars, visor strobes, grille strobes, and strobes for interior and exterior.

Police Sirens – We carry a large selection of polce sirens to be used for police and emergency vehicles. High quality and the lowest prices on the market.

Car Wings & Spoilers – High Wings, mid wings, and spoilers can give any car a more sporty look. All of our wings and spoilers are brand new crafted from either high quality fiberglass, polyurethane, or abs plastic. We also have aluminum spoilers or factory style painted spoilers. Buy a wing or spoiler today!

Car Headlights – Our high quality headlights will add a more custom look to your car! Every purchase comes with a set of 2 headlights. We carry Headlight projectors with Halo available in clear lense or blue lense. We have projector headlights available in carbon fiber, jdm black, and chrome housing.

Car Tail Lights – We carry tail lights for a broad selection of cars. We have LED tail lights, with red lense, smoke lense, black housing, or carbon fiber. Tail lights include Altezza, Euro, or JDM. The perfect way to modify your car! Easy to install within minutes on most vehicles.

Cat-Back Exhaust – Why buy an exhaust that only comes with a big sound when you can purchase one here for power increase, performance increase, and overall looks as well? All cat back exhaust come in the perfect size and tubing length. Mufflers are mirror polished.

Mesh Billet Grille – Customize your vehicle with our wide selection of mesh body kit billet grilles. We carry Body Kit aluminum mesh for customizing your kits. We have a large selection of aluminum and stainless steel billet grilles. We also carry custom made BMW stainless steel mesh grille kits for 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, 850 and the Z4. Buy your new mesh billet grille today!

HID Bulbs Ballast – HID Bulbs D2S D2R D1S D1R D4R D4S 4300K 6000K 8000K at great prices! Name brand HID Bulbs including Nokya, Luminics, Pure Blue, Philips, Osram, Hid replacement bulbs and ballasts. We also carry a Lincoln Mark VIII HID replacement kit. Buy your HID Bulbs today!

LED Light Products – LED Light Accessories, LED Strobes, LEDs with resistors and wires attached, LED Neon Tubes, LED motorcycle Lighting Pods, and many more! Buy yours today! Light your vehicle at night and grab some attention!

Gear Shift Knobs – Gear Shift Knobs for Automatic transmission or Manual transmission. Aluminum shift knobs in every color including burlwood, chrome, leather, and carbon fiber. High quality shift knobs will optimize your interior and make your automatic shift knob look like a manual shift knob.

Under Car Lights – Advanced LED undercar lighting kit available! Great way to make your car stand out using a wireless remote. We also have Windshield Washer Lights for the hood of your car. Available are the UFO undercar light, Seven color LED under car light, Multi color undercar light, or single color undercar light.

Carbon Fiber Interior – Comes in Carbon Fiber vinyl or Burlwood vinyl by Avery. Excellent for interior and exterior use! Hayme Real Carbon fiber material. Apply to spoilers, dash boards, bezels, etc. Get yours today!

Auto Accessories – Includes Cigarette Lighter Adaptor, Basic 12V Switch, Remote Control, Wireless Switch, 4 Channel, 6 function switch box, LED flashers, sho me flasher, control boxes.

Wire Harness – Harness with or without relay! Male and female harness. Buy H11, H1, H3, H4, H8, H9, 9004, 9005, 9006, 9005xs, 9006 xs, 9007 light bulbs and more!

Graphic Decals – Huge selection between hundreds of different decal designs! Including magnetic, stick on decals, and stick on gauge bezels, and more!

SUV Truck Accessories – SUV Truck accessories includes accessories such as shift knobs, steering wheels, bolts, trim pieces and more! Cccessories that can change the look of your car!

Performance Parts – Include coil overs, turbo timers, performace air filters which add performance to your engine!


Extended-Warranty Warning #used #car #sales #uk


#extended auto warranty
#

Extended-Warranty Warning

By Jessica L. Anderson | December 2009

You must read the fine print on your car warranties.

John Pallay of Mansfield, Ohio, found out the hard way that automobile extended warranties can be a raw deal. Pallay recently wrote to Kiplinger’s to relate his tale of warranty woe: When he bought a used 2002 Pontiac Sunfire nearly three years ago, he also bought a $2,000 extended warranty from National Auto Care (now called NAC). Since then, Pallay writes, he has shelled out $1,400 for repairs — and his policy has paid just $30. Some parts that needed replacement were excluded from coverage. Other repairs weren’t covered because the breakdown was caused by a noncovered part.

Hit and miss. Extended warranties consistently inhabit top-ten lists of consumer complaints for a good reason: They often make it difficult to cash in. The language may, for example, obfuscate what is covered and what isn’t so that you end up footing the bill instead of the company backing the contract. The fine print may include a per-item deductible instead of a per-visit one, meaning you could rack up several deductibles in one trip to the shop. Diagnostic fees may not be covered if the part that’s found to be causing the problem isn’t covered. The reimbursed labor rate may be less than what your shop charges. And the warranty may be subject to termination if you don’t follow its maintenance schedule.

Advertisement

Some high-profile warranty companies have gone bankrupt, leaving customers in the lurch. And some 40 state attorneys general have investigated a massive phone and direct-marketing campaign that was waged last year. The companies involved sent out mailings that appeared to be from a car dealer or manufacturer to sell often-worthless warranties.

If those caveats don’t scare you off, the high cost of extended warranties may. According to F it’s better if the dealership is paid directly. Finally, haggle for a lower price. The Consumer Reports survey found that 75% of people who negotiated won a discount.

If you do sign but develop buyer’s remorse, don’t throw up your hands. In most states, you have the right to cancel within 30 days of signing a contract if you haven’t used the policy.