Our Guide To The Philadelphia Auto Show, Which Returns With Cool Cars, Special Events, Test Drives And More, January 31-February 8 #cars #4 #sale


#philly auto show
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Our Guide To The Philadelphia Auto Show, Which Returns With Cool Cars, Special Events, Test Drives And More, January 31-February 8

Fasten your seat belts: the Philadelphia Auto Show returns this Saturday, January 31 and runs through February 8.

(Photo courtesy Philadelphia Auto Show)

The Philadelphia Auto Show races into town on Saturday, January 31 and stays put at the Pennsylvania Convention Center through February 8.

Check out (and learn about) cars of all sort from soon-to-be released models to classic cars that used to rule the road while also test driving cars from Jeep and Toyota.

Read on for our guide to this year s Auto Show.

Background

A tradition since 1902, the Auto Show continually brings the best of the best in automotive design to the spotlight and allows attendees to sit in the vehicles, learn about the cars and some companies even allow guests to test drive.

The featured cars this year include some of the newest models out there everything from Buick and Fiat to Aston Martin and Bentley. A number of classic cars will be on view, too, like a 1970 Plymouth Superbird and a 1929 Dupont le Mans Speedster.

Guests can learn about cars, drive them, ooh and ahh over developments or simply pose for photos in impressive models.

Special Events

The Auto Show opens on Friday, January 30 with the black tie tailgate. a benefit for the Division of Neonatology at CHOP. Be one of the first to check out the 2015 Philadelphia Auto Show as you dine and dance in the Pennsylvania Convention Center during the annual Black Tie Tailgate. The annual gala features an open bar, live music and food by Chef Jose Garces.

Test drive some of the featured cars at ride and drives, events that run throughout the duration of the Auto Show. Test drive Toyotas and Kias or try out a Jeep in the Camp Jeep exhibit. Additional events include live radio broadcasts from the Auto Show and even some tunes from Wired 96.5.

Car fan? The Philadelphia Auto Show is for you with its variety of makes and models — and the opportunity to test drive some of the cars. (Photo courtesy the Philadelphia Auto Show)


Apache HTTP Server Test Page powered by CentOS #second #hand #cars


#denver auto auction
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Apache 2 Test Page

This page is used to test the proper operation of the Apache HTTP server after it has been installed. If you can read this page it means that the Apache HTTP server installed at this site is working properly.

If you are a member of the general public:

The fact that you are seeing this page indicates that the website you just visited is either experiencing problems or is undergoing routine maintenance.

If you would like to let the administrators of this website know that you’ve seen this page instead of the page you expected, you should send them e-mail. In general, mail sent to the name “webmaster” and directed to the website’s domain should reach the appropriate person.

If you are the website administrator:

You may now add content to the directory /var/www/html/. Note that until you do so, people visiting your website will see this page and not your content. To prevent this page from ever being used, follow the instructions in the file /etc/httpd/conf.d/welcome.conf .

You are free to use the images below on Apache and CentOS Linux powered HTTP servers. Thanks for using Apache and CentOS!


How to test sending and receiving of a fax machine, test fax.#Test #fax


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test fax

Presumably, you want to test your fax machine by sending a fax from it and receiving a fax with it. Here’s how to do both:

To test the send functionality of your fax machine, send a one-page fax to 1-888-877-1655 or 1-503-200-1300. When it’s finished transmitting, point your web browser to Fax Toy — it’s a fun web site that displays whatever is faxed to that number. Within a minute, your fax should appear on the site. Click the thumbnail to see a large version.

To test the receive functionality of your fax machine, point your web browser to FaxZero: this site lets you send faxes for free to anywhere in the United States and Canada. Within a few minutes, your fax machine should ring — hopefully, it will automatically answer and spit out the test fax.

10 Responses to How to test sending and receiving of a fax machine

  1. James Says:

GotFreeFax.com also allows user to send free fax online to the US and Canada. User can either upload a PDF/Word file or enter text to fax. Plus, it does NOT add Ads to user s fax and is suitable for faxing formal documents.

The FaxToy phone number has changed to 1-510-545-0990.

Hey! I realize this is sort of off-topic but I needed to ask.

Does running a well-established blog such as yours take a large amount

of work? I m brand new to operating a blog but I do write in my diary every day. I d like to start a blog so I can share my personal experience and

feelings online. Please let me know if you have any kind

of suggestions or tips for brand new aspiring bloggers. Appreciate it!

No it is fairly easy to do. You can use WordPress.com to even host it if you don t want to do it yourself. Once you have a theme and set it up its very easy to update daily.

Thanks for providing this info.

Question: I m scanning into my old XP pc (its all i have left with a modem!) to fax but a lot of my faxes appear on faxtoy as illegible broken up text etc. The text is small to begin with and the scans look ok on my pc before sending but this is not a problem when sending from standalone fax machines.

I m scanning at 200 dpi bw to tiff. Can you recommend a more optimum setting for fax scanning?

PS the number is now (503) 200 1300, or (888) 877 1655

I would increase to at least 300dpi or higher and see if that helps. Thank you for the number update.

The FaxToy number is currently 1-888-877-1655.

Thank you. I have updated the number.

1-855-330-1239 or 1-213-294-2943 are new number

FaxZero requires an e-mail address and it sends an e-mail with a link that you have to click on to send the fax.

Leave a Reply

    210.213.226.3

That ping packet called a timeout. What a wimp!

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  • NetScanTools® Network Engineering Tools and the Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool #netscantools, #network #utilities, #network #security, #firewall #test #tools, #snmp #network #management, #network #tools, #internet #forensics, #net #scan #tools, #netscan #tools, #internet #research #tools, #whitehat #toolkit, #ethical #hacking, #packet #generator, #managed #switch, #stealth #scan, #switch #port #mapper, #switch #mapping, #managed #switch, #switch #port #discovery, #network #engineers #toolkit, #internet #tools, #netscantools #basic, #netscantools #pro, #network #troubleshooting, #netscan, #ipv6


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    We have a NetScanTools® edition** to suit your needs. Our network toolkits are designed for those who work in network engineering, network security, network administration, network training, or law enforcement internet crimes investigation. We have a free edition for home users. **NetScanTools are 32 bit programs that run equally well on 32 or 64 bit Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, 2012, or 2008.

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    Accounting Careers – Learn Bookkeeping – Accounting For Free #accounting, #bookkeeping, #accounting #tutorial, #bookkeeping #tutorial,bookkeeping #tests, #accounting #tests,bookkeeping #exams,accounting #exams,bookkeeping #quizzes,accounting #quizzes,accounting #skills #test,bookkeeping #skills #test,accounting #careers


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    Accounting Careers – Learn Bookkeeping Accounting For Free | dwmbeancounter.com

    Some typical tasks and responsibilities performed by accountants are:

    * Prepare, examine, and analyze accounting records, financial statements, and other financial reports to assess accuracy, completeness, and conformance to reporting and procedural standards

    * Compute taxes owed and prepare tax returns, ensuring compliance with payment, reporting and other tax requirements

    * Analyze business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments, and obligations, to project future revenues and expenses or to provide advice

    * Supervise bookkeepers and accounting clerks

    * Report to management regarding the finances of a company

    * Establish and maintain a chart of accounts tailored to the business

    * Develop, maintain, and analyze budgets and prepare periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs

    * Develop, maintain, and improve the accounting systems and procedures

    * Coordinate and work with other business disciplines such as marketing and production

    What credentials do they need ?

    A Bachelor’s Degree in Accounting from a four year College or University.

    What salary can they expect ?

    Salaries vary by region, educational background, type of business, type of accounting, and the amount of experience an accountant possesses.

    Check the current Average Salary for a full time accountant at Indeed.com .

    Who employs them ?

    Mid-size businesses are able to afford to hire in-house accountants.

    What is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) ?

    What do they do ?

    Some typical tasks and responsibilities performed by CPA’s working for public accounting firms are:

    * Auditing -Audits are conducted annually for publicly owned companies, privately owned businesses, nonprofit organizations and government agencies and groups. These independently prepared reports help owners and managers make operating decisions, enable creditors to evaluate loan applications, and help individuals make investment decisions.

    * Business Management Consulting Services -Perform reviews to identify weaknesses in an organization and offer recommendations for improvements.

    * Taxes -Assist clients with personal and business tax planning, prepare income tax returns, and represent individuals before government agencies at federal, state and local levels.

    Tasks performed by CPA’s working for other types of organizations are similar to the tasks performed by Accountants .

    What credentials do they need ?

    * State Boards Of Accountacy require 150 college credits in accounting and other business courses

    * Required to pass a rigourous CPA Exam

    * Year of work experience

    * Continuing Education Courses

    What salary can they expect ?

    Salaries vary by region, educational background, type of business, type of accounting, and the amount of experience a CPA possesses.

    Check the current Average Salary for a full time Certified Public Accountant at Indeed.com.

    Who employs them ?

    *CPA Firms – Public Accounting

    * Large For Profit Companies

    * Large Non-Profit Agencies

    Future Job Outlook

    The Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook provides salary and projected growth information for accounting jobs in the United States.

    Where Can You Find Information about Schools Offering Accounting Programs ?

    Many two-year colleges, community colleges, and technical schools offer an associate degree in accounting. A word of warning, if you later decide you want to continue your education and obtain a four year degree, make sure your course credits will transfer.

    If you want to pursue a Bachelors Degree or higher, there are many colleges and universities that provide degreed acccounting programs with some tailored to qualifying for obtaining a CPA designation.

    What is covered in the guide:


    Slug Test Analysis #slug #test,aquifer #test,bail-down #test,rising #head,falling #head,overdamped,underdamped,critically #damped,confined,leaky,unconfined,fracture,flow


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    Slug Test Analysis

    The straight-line methods of Hvorslev (1951) and Bouwer and Rice (1976) assume a quasi-steady-state model by neglecting the compressibility of the aquifer (storativity). These methods are commonly used for rising- and falling-head tests and for tests in wells screened across the water table .

    Analysis of falling-head slug test using Bouwer and Rice (1976) method and recommended normalized head range.

    AQTESOLV makes the application of straight-line solutions (e.g. Bouwer and Rice method or Hvorslev method ) easier and more reliable with recommended head ranges (Butler 1998 ) that help to overcome line-fitting ambiguity when data exhibit curvature as shown above.

    AQTESOLV also features type curve methods such as Cooper, Bredehoeft and Papadopulos (1967) and Hyder et al. (1994) (KGS Model) for rising- and falling-head slug tests. These methods are fully transient (include aquifer compressibility) and allow you to analyze multi-well slug tests as well as single-well tests.

    Estimation of aquifer properties from time-displacement data collected during an overdamped slug test in an unconfined aquifer using the KGS Model (Hyder et al. 1994 ) type-curve solution (data from Butler 1998 ).

    Underdamped (Oscillatory) Slug Tests

    Only AQTESOLV provides underdamped slug test solutions for tests with inertial effects in both fully and partially penetrating wells.

    Analysis of underdamped slug test in small-diameter well with frictional well loss in a high-K aquifer (Butler 2002 ).

    AQTESOLV features an innovative visual curve matching tool that makes parameter estimation for underdamped tests a snap (video ) and includes a correction for frictional well loss (Butler 2002 ) that is important for analyzing underdamped tests in small-diameter wells.

    Multi-Well Slug Tests

    AQTESOLV includes slug test data analysis methods such as the KGS Model (Hyder et al. 1994 ) that may be used to analyze multi-well slug tests (interference tests) in confined or unconfined aquifers.

    Analysis of multi-well slug test in a confined aquifer using KGS Model (Hyder et al. 1994 ).

    Most slug tests are conducted as single-well tests in which heads (displacements) are measured in just the test (control) well. In a multi-well slug test, heads are recorded in the test well and one or more nearby observation wells for subsequent analysis.

    Wells Screened Across Water Table

    Analysis of slug test data exhibiting double straight-line effect in well screened across the water table using Bouwer and Rice (1976) method .


    2017 Nissan Sentra vs #2017 #nissan #sentra, #2017 #toyota #corolla, #compare, #vs., #review, #msrp, #invoice, #rebate, #incentive, #lease, #cash #back, #finance, #cost, #warranty, #mpg, #fuel #economy, #engine, #seating, #seats, #city, #highway, #car #photos, #safety, #crash #test, #safety #ratings


    #

    2017 Nissan Sentra vs. 2017 Toyota Corolla Review

    Comparison Review

    Comfort
    Passengers in the back seat will be able to stretch out a lot more in the Toyota Corolla than the Nissan Sentra, due to its greater head- and legroom. Offering just a little more front head- and legroom than the Toyota Corolla, the Nissan Sentra may be a little roomier and more comfortable for the driver and front seat passengers.

    Convenience
    You’ll be making about the same number of stops at the gas station with the Nissan Sentra as you will with the Toyota Corolla, as they get the same number of miles per tank of gas.

    Cost
    There are a lot of factors to consider when calculating the overall cost of a vehicle. The main consideration is Manufacturer’s Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). When looking only at MSRP, the Nissan Sentra will have less of an impact on your bank account than the Toyota Corolla. Another consideration is the Destination Charge, which is a standard charge for transporting the vehicle to the dealer from where it’s built. The Nissan Sentra and the Toyota Corolla have similar Destination Charges.

    Dimensions
    The Nissan Sentra is about the same width as the Toyota Corolla. When looking at overall length, the Nissan Sentra takes up about the same amount of space in your garage as the Toyota Corolla.

    Drivetrain
    With similar torque, the Nissan Sentra and the Toyota Corolla do an equal job of transmitting their engine’s power to their wheels.

    Handling
    The Nissan Sentra has a smaller turning radius than the Toyota Corolla, allowing you to more easily maneuver in and out of tight spots.

    Performance
    The Nissan Sentra has less horsepower than the Toyota Corolla, so it will probably be somewhat slower.

    Utility
    In terms of seating you’ll be able to fit the same number of people in both the Nissan Sentra and the Toyota Corolla. The Nissan Sentra has a roomier cargo area for holding your bags or other items than the Toyota Corolla.

    Warranty
    The Nissan Sentra comes with essentially the same basic warranty as the Toyota Corolla.

    Compare the 2017 Nissan Sentra and the 2017 Toyota Corolla.

    Become a NewCars.com Dealer Partner today.

    Helpful Links

    Certain specifications, prices and equipment data have been provided under license from Chrome Data Solutions (“Chrome Data”). 2017 Chrome Data Solutions, LP. All Rights Reserved. This information is supplied for personal use only and may not be used for any commercial purpose whatsoever without the express written consent of Chrome Data. Chrome Data makes no guarantee or warranty, either expressed or implied, including without limitation any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the data presented here. All specifications, prices and equipment are subject to change without notice.

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    To save money on your next car purchase, please follow the instructions below to turn JavaScript on.

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      Click the Chrome menu on the browser toolbar. Then select Settings. Click “Show advanced settings”. In the “Privacy” section, click the “Content settings” button. Click on the option to “Allow all sites to run JavaScript (recommended)”. Then click “Done”. Refresh your browser.
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    Nmap Online – Highly customizable scanning of network hosts #nmap,security,scanner,nmap #online,port #scan,network,pen-testing,audit,security #scan,firewall #test,ip #scanner,scan,portscan


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    This is your credit balance. Even if you are an anonymous user, you are given some credits to spend. Every IP address has its own account and it is provided with free credits that can be used to pay for Online Domain Tools services. Moreover, credit balance is reset every day. This is why we call them Daily Credits. Registered users have higher Daily Credits amounts and can even increase them by purchasing subscriptions.

    Besides Daily Credits, all accounts, including IP address accounts of anonymous users, have their credit Wallet. Wallet credits are not reset on a daily basis, but they are only spent when a user has not enough Daily Credits. Registered users can buy credits to their wallets. All IP address accounts are created with an initial Wallet balance of 3.00. Once IP address account spends credits from its Wallet, it can not be charged again. This should allow new users to try most of Online Domain Tools services without registration.

    Checkout ? #

    The table in Checkout section clearly summarizes prices that are associated with options you choose in the tool’s form.

    Your credit balance is displayed on the right side above the main menu. Even if you are an anonymous user, you are given some credits to spend. Every IP address has its own account and it is provided with free credits that can be used to pay for Online Domain Tools services. Moreover, credit balance is reset every day. This is why we call them Daily Credits. Accounts of registered users have higher Daily Credits amounts and can even increase them by purchasing subscriptions.

    Besides Daily Credits, all accounts, including IP address accounts of anonymous users, have their credit Wallet. Wallet credits are not reset on a daily basis, but they are only spent when a user has not enough Daily Credits. Registered users can buy credits to their wallets. All IP address accounts are created with an initial Wallet balance of 3.00. Once IP address account spends credits from its Wallet, it can not be charged again. This should allow new users to try most of Online Domain Tools services without registration.

    Examples #

    See Also #

    Description #

    Nmap Online Scanner uses Nmap Security Scanner to perform scanning. It was designed to rapidly scan large networks, although it works fine with single hosts too. We suggest you to read the Nmap’s documentation. especially the Nmap Reference Guide. You can also be interested in some examples of the Nmap’s usage.

    Nmap Online Scanner supports most of the functionality of Nmap Security Scanner. It can be used as a simple and fast port scanner. It can be used to get information about services that run on a computer in your network. Using Nmap Online Scanner you can discover running machines in your network and detect which operating system they are running on. It is also useful for testing firewall configurations. There are simply too many ways to use the Nmap scanner and the Nmap Online Scanner tool. This is why you should check the before-mentioned links to the documentation of Nmap, especially if it is the first time you are about to use Nmap Security Scanner or Nmap Online Scanner.

    All questions related to the Nmap scanner should be sent to the authors of the Nmap scanner. not to the provider of Nmap Online Scanner. Similarly, all questions related to Nmap Online Scanner (i.e. this service and its interface) should be directed to the provider of Nmap Online Scanner, not to the authors of the Nmap scanner.

    Usage #

    Nmap Security Scanner is a very complex tool and this is why there are three different modes in Nmap Online Scanner. The first two modes are easy to use even for Nmap beginners. The Quick scan of your computer quickly scans the most known ports and gives you quick information about the ports and services accessible on your computer from the Internet. The Full Nmap scan of your computer is a mode in which Nmap Online Scanner scans a full range of ports that are specified within this option. This scan can take a while especially if you want to scan more than 10000 ports. The third mode is the Custom scan mode, which puts the whole power of the Nmap scanner into your hands. Although there are some limitations for security reasons, if your intentions are good you should be able to use the Nmap scanner for whatever you need. In the Custom mode you specify the arguments for the Nmap scanner yourself, similarly to what you would do if you were about to run Nmap Security Scanner from the command line shell.

    The most common Nmap modes firstly try to use the host discovery feature and continue only if they detect that the target host is online. Many hosts, however, do not respond to ping requests and hence the required scan itself is not performed. In such a case the only result you get on the output is that the host seems to be down. If you are sure the host is up and you are only interested in the scan results and not the information about whether or not it responds to ping requests, we recommend you to use -Pn option right away. In case of Quick scan and Full Nmap scan modes it is not possible to add custom options, but by selecting one of these scanning modes the Custom scan arguments are modified and then you can select the Custom scan mode and add -Pn to the custom arguments.

    The results will appear in your browser once they are ready. This can take some time, however. You can wait for the results with your browser opened or you can enable the Send email notification when the scan results are ready option. This option requires you to be a registered user and logged in before you start the scan. Once the results are ready, the notification will be sent to your email. You will receive a link to a web page containing your results. If you are logged in, you can also check your account’s Tasks History any time later to see results of all scans you executed.

    Using the Time limit option, you can specify the maximum amount of time that your scan may take. The default value is 30 minutes and the cost for this time limit is included in the Basic price. You can set a higher limit up to 120 minutes for your task, but you will be charged for every extra 5 minutes over the default limit. Note that your final cost is counted from the actual execution time of your scan. At first, we debit your account with as many credits as it is needed to cover the maximal limit you set. Then after the task is completed we credit back unused credits if any. For example, if you have enough credits in your account, you can safely set the limit to 120 minutes, and if the actual scan takes only 43 minutes, you will be returned unused credits so that your final cost will be as if you set the limit to 45 minutes.

    If you are interested in processing the output of your Nmap scan with a script or another tool, you can try to enable a special option Use structured (XML/JSON) output (useful for parsing exports). This will cause Nmap scanner to be started with additional -oX – parameter sequence, which produces XML output instead of the standard text output. Then you can either work with the output as you see it in your browser, or you can export the result to XML, JSON, or TXT format. To do this, use the blue Get Export icon. Note that if you choose JSON format of export, the XML output produced by Nmap scanner will be converted to JSON.

    Limits #

    You can scan IP addresses in the C class subnet of your IP only. For example, if your IP address is 89.176.14.234, you can scan addresses from 89.176.14.0 to 89.176.14.255. The only allowed syntax to specify IP address is a.b.c.d or a.b.c.d-e.

    The Custom scan options can have up to 200 characters. For security reasons, the following Nmap options are disabled:

    –adler32
    –badsum
    –excludefile
    –iR
    –ip-options
    –packet-trace
    –proxies
    –resume
    –script-help
    –script-updatedb
    –spoof-mac
    –unprivileged
    –webxml
    -e
    -i

    –append-output
    –datadir
    –iL
    –iflist
    –log-errors
    –privileged
    –release-memory
    –script-args-file
    –script-trace
    –servicedb
    –stylesheet
    –versiondb
    -S
    -f
    -o

    Scripts

    Nmap Online Scanner allows to run Nmap scripts, yet, for security reasons not all scripts are installed. Please see the list of currently supported scripts: [Show ]

    The value of –script option cannot contain a dot (.) character. This is not an issue when specifying scripts to be used since the extension “.nse” is optional.


    Ethanol Fuel History #history,ethanol,article,ethanol #fuel,fuel #test #kit,fuel,gas,gas #pump,e10,e85,dangers,problems,renewable #fuel,corn,reformulated #fuel,marine,marine #fuel,automobile #fuel,alcohol #fuel,ethanol #alcohol,water #in #fuel,marine #engine #fuel,auto,vehicle,environment,mtbe,ban,epa,politics,organization,association,corn #fuel,testing,phase #separation,vapor #lock,warning,


    #

    In 1908, Ford Motor Company’s first car, The Model T, used ethanol corn alcohol gasoline as fuel energy.

    Since 2003, ethanol has grown rapidly as the oxygenating factor for gasoline. Ethanol replaced MTBE for oxygenating fuel, since almost all states now have banned MTBE, due to groundwater contamination, health and environmental concerns.

    Ethanol blend fuels for gas powered engines have been around for over 100 years; Ethanol is now found at most public gas stations nationwide, due to mandates/laws and recommendations in the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (1988), Clean Air Act (1990), Energy Policy Act (2005) and most importantly – The Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS) – Signed September 2006.

    The push for ethanol as an alternative to imported oil spurred the construction of 172 plants in 25 states by the end of 2008. But during 2009 falling oil prices has made ethanol less cost effective. More than 20 plants have recently closed.

    Despite 10% being the universally accepted legal limit for ethanol in conventional gas-powered engines,

    in March 2009 ACE, Growth Energy and 54 ethanol producers submitted a waiver application to increase E10 to E15.

    ETHANOL HISTORY TIMELINE

    1826 Samuel Morey developed an engine that ran on ethanol and turpentine.

    1850’s During the Civil War, a liquor tax was placed on ethanol whisky, also called Moonshine, to raise money for the war.

    1876 Otto Cycle was the first combustion engine designed to use alcohol and gasoline.

    1896 Henry Ford built his first automobile, the quadricycle, to run on pure ethanol.

    1920’s Standard Oil began adding ethanol to gasoline to increase octane and reduce engine knocking.

    1908 The first Ford Motor Company automobile, Henry Ford’s Model T. was designed to use corn alcohol, called ethanol. The Model T ran on (ethanol) alcohol, fuel or a combination of the two fuels.

    1940’s First U.S. fuel ethanol plant built. The U.S. Army built and operated an ethanol plant in Omaha, Nebraska, to produce fuel for the army and to provide ethanol for regional fuel blending.

    1940’s to late 1970’s Virtually no commercial fuel ethanol was sold to the general public in the U.S. – due to the low price of gasoline fuel.

    1975 U.S. begins to phase out lead in gasoline. MTBE eventually replaced lead.

    Note: Later, between 2004 to 2006, MTBE banned in almost all states, due to groundwater contamination and health risks.

    1980’s Oxygenates added to gasoline included MTBE (Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether – made from natural gas and petroleum) and ETBE (Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether – made from ethanol and petroleum).

    1988 Denver, Colorado, was the first state to mandate ethanol oxygenates fuels for winter use to control carbon monoxide emissions. Other cities soon followed.

    1990 Clean Air Act Amendments – Mandated the winter use of oxygenated fuels in 39 major carbon monoxide non-attainment areas (based on EPA emissions standards for carbon dioxide not being met) and required year-round use of oxygenates in 9 severe ozone non-attainment areas in 1995.

    1992 The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) was passed by Congress to reduce our nation’s dependence on imported petroleum by requiring certain fleets to acquire alternative fuel vehicles, which are capable of operating on nonpetroleum fuels.

    The Clean Air Act (1990) and Alternative Motor Fuels Act (1998 1992) contain provisions for mandating oxygenated fuel (RFG =Ethanol and MTBE). Requirements set for 2 types of clean-burning gasoline, RFG Federal Reformulated Gasoline and Wintertime Oxygenated Fuel.

    1995 The EPA began requiring the use of reformulated gasoline year round in metropolitan areas with the most smog.


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    CMV Tests

    How is it used?

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) testing is used to determine whether someone with signs and symptoms has an active CMV infection. Sometimes it may be ordered to help determine whether someone had a prior CMV infection.

    CMV is a common virus that occurs widely throughout the population but rarely causes noticeable symptoms or significant health problems. However, primary CMV infection may cause serious illness and complications in newborns and people with weakened immune systems, such as transplant recipients, cancer patients, people receiving immunosuppressive drugs, and people with HIV. (See the “What is being tested?” section for more on this.)

    There are a few different methods of detecting a CMV infection. The choice of tests and samples collected depends on the age of the person, their general health status and symptoms, and on the health practitioner’s clinical findings and suspicions of organ involvement.

    Antibody testing (serology)
    Antibody testing is done on blood samples and can be used to determine if someone has had recent or past exposure. There are two types of CMV antibodies that are produced in response to a CMV infection, IgM and IgG. and one or both may be detected in the blood.

    • IgM antibodies are the first to be produced by the body in response to a CMV infection. They are present in most individuals within a week or two after the initial exposure. IgM antibody production rises for a short time period and then declines. After several months, the level of CMV IgM antibody usually falls below detectable levels. Additional IgM antibodies are produced when latent CMV is reactivated.
    • IgG antibodies are produced by the body several weeks after the initial CMV infection and provide protection from primary infections. Levels of IgG rise during the active infection, then stabilize as the CMV infection resolves and the virus becomes inactive. After a person has been exposed to CMV, the person will have some measurable amount of CMV IgG antibody in their blood for the rest of their life. CMV IgG antibody testing can be used, along with IgM testing, to help confirm the presence of a recent or previous CMV infection.

    CMV antibody testing may be used to determine immunity to primary CMV infections for people prior to organ or bone marrow transplantation and for a person diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Since CMV infection is widespread and causes few problems to those with healthy immune systems. general population screening is rarely done.

    Antibody testing and viral CMV detection may be used to help diagnose primary CMV infection in young adults, pregnant women, and some immune-compromised people with flu- or mononucleosis-like symptoms. By comparing the absence or presence of IgG and IgM antibodies in the same sample or the amount of antibody present in samples collected on different days, a health practitioner may be able to distinguish between active and latent CMV.

    Direct detection of CMV
    Viral detection involves determining the presence of CMV in a blood, fluid, or tissue sample. This can be done either by culturing the virus or by detecting the virus’s genetic material (CMV DNA ). Viral detection is used to diagnose congenital infections in newborns and may be used to detect and/or confirm active infections in others.

    Viral culture is the traditional method of virus detection. Presence of the virus (positive cultures) can often be determined in as little as 1 to 2 days, but cultures that are negative for the virus must be held for 3 weeks to confirm the absence of CMV because the virus may be present in very low numbers in the original sample and/or the CMV strain may be slow-growing.

    Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used to detect and measure the amount of viral DNA in a person’s sample. Testing can be qualitative. determining the presence or absence of CMV, or quantitative. measuring the amount of virus present.

    Immune-compromised people with active CMV may be monitored using a variety of CMV tests. Often, health practitioners want a quantifiable viral test to be able to track the amount of virus present (viral load ). They can use a quantitative test to monitor a person’s response to antiviral therapy.

    When is it ordered?

    CMV tests may be ordered, along with tests for influenza. mononucleosis (mono). and EBV (Epstein-Barr virus). when a young adult, a pregnant woman, or an immune-compromised person has flu- or mono-like signs and symptoms such as:

    • Fatigue, weakness
    • Sore throat
    • Swollen lymph nodes
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Muscle aches

    Other less common but more serious signs include inflammation of the lungs, eyes, liver, spleen, and/or digestive tract.

    One or more CMV tests may be ordered at intervals when a health practitioner is monitoring the effectiveness of antiviral therapy.

    CMV culture or molecular testing may be done for a newborn with jaundice. anemia. an enlarged spleen and/or liver, and a small head; or for an infant with hearing and vision problems, pneumonia. seizures, and/or signs of delayed mental development.

    When a person is a candidate for an organ or bone marrow transplant, CMV antibody testing may be ordered as a screening test to determine if the person has been exposed to CMV in the past.

    What does the test result mean?

    Care must be taken when interpreting the results of CMV testing. A health practitioner evaluates the results in conjunction with clinical findings, including signs and symptoms. It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between a latent. active or reactivated CMV infection. This is due to several reasons, including:

    • A healthy person who has been infected with CMV at one time will continue to harbor the virus. The CMV can reactivate intermittently, often sub-clinically, shedding small amounts of virus into body fluids but not causing symptoms.
    • An immune-compromised person may not have a strong antibody response to the CMV infection; the person’s IgM and IgG levels may be lower than expected even though the person has an active case of CMV.
    • The virus may not be present in sufficient number in the particular fluid or tissue tested to able to be detected.

    Antibody testing
    A positive CMV IgG and IgM in a symptomatic person means it is likely that the person has either recently been exposed to CMV for the first time or that a previous CMV infection has been reactivated. This can be confirmed by measuring IgG levels again 2 or 3 weeks later. A high level of IgG is not as important as a rising level. If there is a 4-fold increase in IgG between the first and second sample, then the person has an active CMV infection (primary or reactivated).

    A positive CMV IgM and negative IgG means the person may have very recently been infected.

    A negative IgG and/or IgM or low levels of the antibodies in someone who is symptomatic may mean that the person either has a condition other than CMV or that the person’s immune system is not responding normally (not producing an adequate amount of antibody even if CMV is present).

    The following table summarizes possible antibody testing results:

    Past exposure (person is immune from primary infection); latent infection

    Viral detection
    If a person is symptomatic and the culture is positive for cytomegalovirus, then the person likely has an active CMV infection. If the culture is negative, then the person’s symptoms may be due to another cause or the amount of CMV virus in the sample is too low to detect.

    If a test for CMV DNA is positive, then CMV is present and the person has an active infection. High levels of viral DNA tend to indicate a more invasive infection accompanied by serious symptoms while low levels indicate a CMV infection, usually one with no symptoms or ones that are mild. Like culture, negative results on a DNA test do not rule out CMV infection; the virus may be present in very low numbers or may not be present in the body sample tested.

    When used to monitor effectiveness of treatment, decreasing viral loads reflect a response to antiviral treatment. Levels that do not drop in response to antiviral treatment might reflect a resistance to the therapy being used.

    Is there anything else I should know?

    CMV is one of the conditions included in a TORCH testing panel. This panel of tests screens for a group of infectious diseases that can cause illness in pregnant women and may cause birth defects in their newborns. TORCH is an acronym for: Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus.

    When blood transfusion is needed, certain patients, such as CMV-negative HIV/AIDS patients and CMV-negative heart/lung transplant candidates, should receive cellular blood products that have been tested negative for CMV antibodies (so-called CMV seronegative blood products).