California Solar Initiative (CSI) – Rebate Levels #california #solar #power #rebates


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California Solar Initiative Rebates

California Solar Initiative rebates vary according to utility territory, system size, customer class, and performance and installation factors. The rebates automatically decline in “steps” based on the volume of solar megawatts (MWs) with confirmed project reservations within each utility service territory. The figure below shows the expected schedule for rebate decline over time. To find the currently applicable rebate level in your area, check with your local utility administrator. There are two incentive paths available to consumers: Expected Performance Based Buydown and Performance Based Incentive.

The CSI Program pays solar consumers an incentive based on system performance. The incentives are either an upfront lump-sum payment based on expected performance, or a monthly payment based on actual performance over five years. The Expected Performance-Based Buydown (EPBB) is the upfront incentive available only for smaller systems. The EPBB incentive is a capacity-based incentive that is adjusted based on expected system performance calculated using an EPBB calculator that considers major design characteristics of the system, such as panel type, installation tilt, shading, orientation, and solar insolation available by location. The EPBB calculator estimates the expected performance of a solar system based various factors including the tilt, azimuth, location, PV module type and mounting type of a specific system.

The Performance Based Incentive (PBI) is paid based on actual performance over the course of five years. The PBI is paid on a fixed dollar per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh) of generation basis and is the required incentive type for systems greater than 30 kW in size, although smaller systems may opt to be paid based on PBI. In the beginning of the CSI Program, all systems 100kW and greater were required to take the PBI incentive. In January 2008, all systems 50kW and greater were required to take the PBI incentive. As of January 2010, all systems 30kW and greater are required to take the PBI incentive.

These two incentive types are explained in more detail in the table below.

CSI Incentive Types

Expected Performance-Based Buydown (EPBB)
(Paid in dollars/Watt)

Performance-Based Incentive (PBI)
(Paid in cents/kWh)

Ideal for residential and small business projects


Power Dispatcher I jobs (with Salaries) #power #dispatcher #i #jobs, #job #search #engine, #jobs, #job #listings, #find #jobs, #careers, #employment #opportunity, #online #job #sites, #resumes, #salaries, #simple, #hire


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Power Dispatcher I jobs

City of Atlanta, GA – Atlanta, GA Est. $26,000 – $34,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Contacts various utility companies to resolve problems such as gas detection, power failures, etc.; Applicants must pass a communications dispatcher performance.

Mecklenburg EMS Agency – Charlotte, NC Est. $25,000 – $34,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Emergency Medical Dispatcher (EMD) (within three months of hiring). Monitors NAWAS (National Weather Service) and Duke Power radio phones.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts – Framingham, MA $47,000 – $64,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Receive alerts and notify proper personnel of Nuclear Power Plant incidents(Seabrook, Pilgrim and Vermont Yankee).

Exelon – Plymouth Meeting, PA Est. $56,000 – $70,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Dispatch single All – Out, Part – Out and Power Quality Events. Candidate must receive a Recommended result on the System Operator / Power Dispatch (SOPD) test.

City of Lakewood, CA – Lakewood, CA $17 – $20 an hour

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Simple and power grasping; DASH Communication Specialist I-II Maximum of 1,560 hours per fiscal year.

Exelon – Bethesda, MD Est. $34,000 – $45,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Candidate must receive a “Recommended” result on the System Operator / Power Dispatch (SOPD) test to be eligible for consideration.

New Hanover Regional Medical Center – Wilmington, NC Est. $26,000 – $36,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Emergency Generator Power System and Fire – monitor, acknowledge, announce, silence, and report. This position has access to and knowledge of extremely.

Exelon – New Castle, DE Est. $36,000 – $48,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Candidate must receive a “Recommended” result on the System Operator / Power Dispatch (SOPD) test to be eligible for consideration.

American Electric Power – Columbus, OH Est. $67,000 – $87,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

The Generation Dispatcher has the responsibility and authority in directing power plant control room operators to take appropriate action ensuring that units.

Duquesne Light – Pittsburgh, PA Est. $49,000 – $67,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Today, the company continues its role as a leader in the transmission and distribution of electric energy, providing a secure supply of reliable power to more.

Union Pacific – Chicago, IL Est. $27,000 – $35,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Ability to apply muscular strength, power, flexibility, aerobic capacity, range of motion, and endurance in the performance of the physical requirements of the.

City of Albany and Dougherty County, GA – Albany, GA $13 an hour

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Contacts various other departments to resolve problems such as street lights being out, downed street signs, roadway debris, and power outages.

UCHealth – Fort Collins, CO Est. $25,000 – $35,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Certified Advanced Emergency Medical Dispatcher, or 1 year of experience. At UCHealth, we ll do everything in our power to make sure you grow and have a.

IAP Worldwide Services, Inc – United States Est. $58,000 – $85,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Be familiar with Microsoft programs such as Excel, Word, and Power Point. A world-class leader in providing seasoned program management, IAP leverages and.

Dynegy – Houston, TX Est. $34,000 – $50,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

This position is for a Generation Dispatcher to hourly manage power generation assets in the PJM power market.

Union Pacific – Provo, UT Est. $27,000 – $35,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Ability to apply muscular strength, power, flexibility, aerobic capacity, range of motion, and endurance in the performance of the physical requirements of the.

Rexnord – Milwaukee, WI Est. $66,000 – $88,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Rexnord PT is generally #1 or #2 in its served markets with primary competitors including such companies as Dodge Power Transmission (Baldor), Emerson Power.

Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. – Honolulu, HI Est. $30,000 – $38,000 a year

Please note that all salary figures are approximations based upon third party submissions to SimplyHired. These figures are given to the SimplyHired users for the purpose of generalized comparison only. Minimum wage may differ by jurisdiction and you should consult the employer for actual salary figures.

Directs 1st responder field personnel to address trouble calls, repair orders, distribution power outages and emergencies, and power restoration mitigation and.

Vail Resorts – Park City, UT

The Dispatcher expedites communications and dispatches company personnel and vehicles. Power on and off to all lifts, lift openings and closures.


Electrical PDF courses ~ Electrical Knowhow #online #electrical #courses, #free, #electrical #software, #electrical #books, #electrical #spreadsheets, #electrical #design, #sound #system #design #course, #voltage, #power, #transformer, #current, #voltage #drop, #generator, #circuit #breaker, #fuse, #cable, #low #voltage, #high #voltage, #wire, #power #factor, #title #block, #cad #drawing, #nec #code, #nfpa #70, #method #statement, #electrical #procurement, #tendering, #short #circuit, #over #voltage, #switch, #receptacle, #ligh #fixture, #lighting, #grounding, #bonding, #earthing, #lightning, #raceway, #fire #alarm, #smoke #detector, #bms, #cctv, #switchgear, #panel, #busbar, #automatic #transfer #switch, #demand #factor, #capacitor, #resistance, #coil, #battery, #ampere, #horsepower, #watt, #switchboard, #schedule, #single #line #diagram, #quantity #survey, #bill #of #quantities, #specification, #copper, #aluminum, #sensor, #strobe


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Electrical PDF courses

  1. click on the file name that you want to download
  2. a new page will open, don’t care about the message “these files are temporary unavailable”,
  3. Look in the upper right corner of the page, you will find an arrow point to down,
  4. click this arrow the download will start automatically.
  5. after downloading, you will need to enter your password to open the file.

Non-registered members in Electrical-Knowhow website will not be able to open and read Our PDF Courses.

To register as a member of Electrical-Knowhow website, do the following:

On completion of this course the target person will be able to:

  • Understand the technology, concepts and terminology of Electrical Motors.
  • Recognize different types, theory of operation, components and accessories of Electrical Motors.
  • Specify correctly any type of Electrical Motors for certain applications.




On completion of this course the target person will be able to:

  • Understand the concepts. terminology and basics for lighting design,

  • Recognize lighting sources, fixtures and lamps,

  • Understand day lighting design basics.

3- An Introduction to Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Systems

On completion of this course the target person will be able to:

  • Understand the technology, concepts and terminology in the design of HVAC systems.

  • Recognize different types, components and accessories of HVAC systems.
  • Specify correctly any type of HVAC systems.

4- Electrical Load Estimation Course

On completion of this course the target person will be able to:

  • Recognize different calculation method for electrical load estimation.
  • Understand the procedures and logic of each method for electrical load estimation.
  • Perform the calculations steps of each method for electrical load estimation.

Our country is now implementing the K 12 program. we are now on the grade nine. I am one of those experts assigned to develop learning materials for the grade 10. Your guides are explained in a very friendly way that even those who are not so good in English can understand because of the very nice presentations. I wish I could use some of the information if your group will allow us granted that the learning materials will be for reference only. All the information you have given is enough for an instructional designer to develop his own. To all of you thank you and may god will always give you wisdom in helping the people world wide. I am from the Philippines GOD BLESS.

I give you a permission to use the learning materials in this website as a reference for your learning materials and if you need any help, just send me email or comment.


All BMWs Former Coding thread – Closed – Bimmerfest – BMW Forums #all #bmws #former #coding #thread, #closed, #bmw, #bmw #forum, #bmw #models, #m3, #e36, #e46, #e90, #e60, #3-series, #5-series, #1-series, #2-series, #motorsports, #racing #and #track, #bmw #auto-x, #m1, #m2, #m5, #z4, #x5, #x3, #bimmerfest, #6-series, #7-series, #8-series, #mini, #european #delivery, #e39, #e92, #e93, #e87, #e88, #318, #323, #325, #328, #330, #525, #528, #530, #535, #540, #550, #735, #740, #750, #850, #z3, #z4, #bimmer, #motorsports, #motor #sport, #f1, #auto-x, #autox, #m, #car, #auto, #automobile, #luxury, #stereo, #audio, #software, #chip, #tuning, #fast, #product, #shows, #events, #autocross, #racing, #bmw #research, #supercharger, #turbocharger, #twin #turbo, #exhaust, #tsb, #pricing, #bmw #pricing, #invoice #pricing, #335, #335i, #e91, #performance #driving, #performance #driving #school, #bmw #tracking, #csl, #coupe, #sedan, #wagon, #speaker, #sub, #rims, #horsepower, #torque, #lb-ft, #racing, #racing #shoes, #aftermarket, #german, #bmw #wiki, #m #power, #bmw #dealers


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A Big “Thank You” to April1 for all the work he did and I benefited!

Exactly one week ago today, I PM April1 asking about cable and software for coding. On Monday, he shipped the package via USPS Priority Mail and I got it on Wednesday.

The package was professionally done, with labels on the flash drive and cable. Very nice!!

I followed this thread and others about coding, and finally decided that it was time, but links to the software was no where to be found. Fortunately April1 was the one-stop-shop for all my coding needs.

Last Sunday after April1 confirmed he had everything I need, I started preparing my Windows XP laptop computer and read up on the instructions.

Wednesday night I copied Apirl1’s flash drive onto my hard drive, installed the software, studied the instructions, made some notes to get ready for Thursday night’s connection to my 2013 X3.

Thursday night came, I was careful to disable anti-virus software and Windows firewall, and turned off my laptop’s WiFi and Bluetooth. I also made sure I turned of all lights (automatic headlights, daylight running lights, and dome lights) in the car to conserve power. I followed the instructions to connect to my car. I was able to read the CAF file from my car and did a backup.

I had originally planned on doing just that on Thursday night. However, the process was so easy that I went on to code.

I successfully:

  1. disabled iDrive legal disclaimer during iDrive startup
  2. disbaled camera legal disclaimer
  3. added pressure and temperature readings to the TPMS screen
  4. enabled DVD in motion

I tried but wasn’t able to enable turn signal on HUD.

April1’s cable and software bundle, detailed instructions and screen shots in the “E-Sys – Getting Started Coding” PDF files paved the way to my quick success.

I greatly appreciate the contribution of all who went before me and so generously shared their knowledge!


V voltage #voltage #regulator #calculator, #lm117, #lm138, #lm150, #lm317, #lm338, #lm350, #national #semiconductor, #3 #terminal #adjustable #datasheets, #schematics, #circuits, #power #supply, #electronics, #diy


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LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Calculator

LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulators

The LM317 / LM338 / LM350 family of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators can take a input of 3 to 40 Volts DC and provide a regulated voltage over a 1.2V to 37V output range. The LM317 voltage regulators can provide up to 1.5 Amperes (A) of output current. Where greater output current is required, the LM350 series regulators are suitable up to 3A and the LM338 series voltage regulators for up to 5A of output.

The LM317 / LM338 / LM350 voltage regulators are exceptionally easy to use, requiring only two external resistors to set the regulated output voltage. You can expect performance of both the line and load regulation using the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 adjustable voltage regulators over that of standard fixed voltage regulator. The LM317 / LM338 / LM350 voltage regulators offer full overload protection. Normally, no capacitors are needed unless the device is situated more than 150 mm (6 inches) from the input filter capacitors in which case an input bypass capacitor is required. An optional output capacitor can be added to improve transient response. The adjustment terminal of the regulator can be bypassed to achieve very high ripple rejection. Refer to the adjustable regulator data sheets below for more information about the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 adjustable voltage regulators.

Photograph 1: LM317 Voltage Regulator (TO-220 Plastic Package)

LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Calculator

You can use this Voltage Regulator Calculator to vary the value of the program resistor (R1 ) and output set resistor (R2 ) and calculate the output voltage for the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 family of three terminal adjustable voltage regulators. This Voltage Regulator Calculator will work for all voltage regulators with a reference voltage (VREF ) of 1.25. Typically, the program resistor (R1 ) is set at 240 ohms for the LM117, LM317, LM138 and LM150 regulators. For the LM338 and LM350 regulators, 120 ohms is typically used for the program resistor R1. However, other values such as 150 or 220 ohms can also be used for R1. The LM317 / LM338 / LM350 series of voltage regulators can also be configured to regulate current in a circuit. For information about current regulation with these integrated circuit (IC) regulators see the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Current Regulator Calculator.

Figure 1: LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Calculator Schematic

LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Calculator

To determine the output voltage, enter values for the program (R1 ) and set (R2 ) resistors and hit the “Calculate” button.

NOTE: this online voltage regulator calculator requires that JavaScript be enabled on your browser.

LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Calculator

UPDATE – the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 current regulator calculator has been moved to it’s own page, LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Current Regulator Calculator. Please update your bookmarks.

Datasheets – LM317 / LM338 / LM350 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator

  • LM117 / LM317A / LM317 Adjustable Regulator Datasheet – (PDF 1MB) – March 2010 – National Semiconductor
  • LM138 / LM338 5 Amp 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator Datasheet – (PDF 400kB) – May 1998 – National Semiconductor
  • LM150 / LM350 3 Amp 3-Terminal Adjustable Regulator Datasheet – (PDF 400kB) – May 1998 – National Semiconductor

LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Circuits

The following schematics show typical circuit applications for the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 voltage regulators. Note. The dropout voltage of the IC regulator is about 1.5 to 2.5 Volts, dependent on the output current (IOUT ). Therefore, the input voltage to the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 regulator will need to be at least 1.5V to 2.5V greater than the desired output voltage. Plan to be about 3V about the desired output voltage. You don’t want to use too high an input voltage as the excess will need to be dissipated as heat through the regulator. See the voltage regulator datasheets above for specific details regarding the dropout voltage and heatsink requirements.

Figure 2: 1.2 to 25V Adjustable Voltage Regulator Schematic for LM317 / LM338 / LM350

When external capacitors are used with a voltage regulator it may be necessary to use protection diodes to prevent the capacitors from discharging through low current points into the voltage regulator. Even small capacitors can have a low enough internal series resistance to be able to deliver 20A spikes when shorted. Although the surge is very short in duration, there is enough energy to damage parts of the regulator IC. No protection diodes are required for output voltages of less than 25V or greater than 10 uF capacitance. Figure 3 shows the LM317 / LM338 / LM350 with protection diodes included for use with voltage outputs greater than 25V and high values of output capacitance.

Figure 3: LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Voltage Regulator Schematic with Protection Diodes

Solid tantalum capacitors can be used on the voltage output to improve the ripple rejection of the voltage regulator.

Figure 4: LM317 / LM338 / LM350 Adjustable Voltage Regulator Schematic with Improved Ripple Rejection

Figure 5: 12 Volt Battery Charger Circuit with LM317 regulator

Video Tutorial – LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator

LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator Tutorial – Uploaded by Afrotechmods on Apr 17, 2011 (YouTube) – 4 minutes, 8 seconds.

LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator Tutorial

Voltage and Current Regulator Links

Last update 6 January 2014. Created 28 July 2007. diyAudioProjects.com – Terms of Service – Privacy Policy.


Free Excel Gantt Charting and Project Planning #burndown #chart,s-curve #chart,physical #progress,,timeline,launchexcel,power #tips,gantt #chart,project #schedule,cost #performance #index,cpi,schedule #performance #index,spi,progress #meansurement,gantt #roadmap,project #roadmap,schedule #logic,schedule #template,predecessor,successor,logical #link,labour #demand,project


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CONVERT YOUR FREE VERSION TO A PREMIUM VERSION NOW ONLY $29

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An overview of the main GanttDiva features (video)

GanttDiva supports Excel 2007 and newer versions (Excel 2010, Excel 2013, Excel 2015)

GanttDiva is both easy to use and easy to install and uninstall. It is delivered as an MSI package that installs the spreadsheet. the help file and sets up a shortcut on your desktop. GanttDiva does not require Administrator privileges to install and relies only on your installed Excel VBA to drive its functionality.

GanttDiva is absolutely free, and for the first 30 days of your installation, check out a set of additional features that you will get by purchasing the premium version.

If you don t need the premium features and just want project plan software for your own personal use, GanttDiva will continue to operate after the 30 day trial period of the premium features. The free version of GanttDiva is a great tool to help you plan a project and it has a comprehensive help file to explain all of the features.

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Automobile Power Window Repair at 40-70% Less #framingham #auto #mall


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If you answered yes to any of the above questions, you may be in desperate need of an affordable power window regulator or motor repair! Unfortunately most modern power window regulators and motors are designed to break! The problem is the cheap plastic parts used inside those window regulator and window motor mechanisms that help move the window regulator and glass up and down.

You Choose.

Plastic or Metal?

We are the ONLY company in the nation that custom-fabricates metal parts to replace the cheap plastic spring tensioner parts found in the modern window regulators! These parts are what hold the window regulator together, so you can clearly see those plastic parts are no match for our metal replacement spring tensioners

There s no comparison. Our parts are stronger, more practical, and when applied to our repair, they will last longer than any other replacement part on the market today. PERIOD!

Our proprietary power window regulator repair and creative labor rates will save you 40-70% off traditional dealer and repair shop pricing. You just hit the jackpot!


Motor Efficiency, Power Factor, and Load #power #factor, #efficiency, #load, #motors, #system #performance, #cost #savings, #electric #motor #efficiency, #energy #efficiency, #power #quality


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Motor Efficiency, Power Factor, and Load

How to improve system performance and generate cost savings on the plant floor

By developing a greater understanding regarding electric motor efficiency and operating characteristics, you can realize some serious electric energy cost savings. An often overlooked and widely misunderstood characteristic of electric motors is power factor (PF). Proper electric motor application and efficiency are important things to know when applying or replacing a motor, although PF can be equally important when operating costs are considered.

Recent studies indicate the level of knowledge and implementation of motor system energy-efficiency measures is low. A plethora of information on motor system design, best practices, purchasing, and management is widely available, but few companies have embraced it. Training opportunities and tools to deepen the knowledge base of end-users is necessary to apply motor and motor system efficiency measures at the plant level.

Most electric motor purchase and maintenance decisions affecting efficiency are made at the plant level. In addition, there has been limited training at this level regarding motor efficiency and motor system optimization. Studies have also shown that a low percentage of facility managers have implemented motor purchasing and maintenance specifications. These factors can be attributed to adoption of plant-level motor system efficiency improvements.

Motor efficiency

The Energy Policy Act (EPAct) became effective in 1997. EPAct requires 1-hp to 200-hp general-purpose motors sold in the United States to meet minimum efficiency levels, referred to as EPAct levels. The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA), effective December 2010, updated EPAct efficiency levels for 1-hp to 200-hp motors and established minimum efficiency levels for most 201-hp to 500-hp motors.

Motor efficiency is the ratio between the amount of mechanical work the motor performs and the electrical power it consumes to do the work, represented by a percentage. A higher percentage represents a more efficient motor. Electric motor efficiency is dependent on (but not limited to) design, materials, construction, rating, load, power quality, and operating conditions.

Power factor basics

PF, often discussed as an energy cost reduction measure, is not a true energy savings measure. Improving PF can reduce energy costs if the end-user is subject to utility PF charges. Users with electric utility rates based on energy use only, no demand charges (such as residential and small commercial users), will typically not benefit from PF correction measures. End-user PF correction is primarily applied to avoid electric utility charges for low PF and to reduce demand on end-user transformers and generators to free up capacity. Electric utilities, in order to reduce their system losses, encourage energy users to consume energy efficiently by defining their charges based on certain parameters. A common electric utility charge is for low PF.

Best described and understood by reviewing the components of an electrical system, PF is the ratio between kilowatts (kW) and kilovolt-amps (kVA). Total electrical power kVA has two components: real power kW and reactive power kilovolt-amps reactive (kVAR) mathematically described as:

kVA2 = kW2 + kVAR2

Power factor = kW kVA

Many commercial and industrial facility loads are motors, inductive loads requiring inductive reactive power. Capacitors provide reactive power electrically in the opposite direction of the inductive reactive power. Inductive kVAR can be reduced or canceled by adding capacitive kVAR. Unity PF, or 100% PF, is when kVA = kW. A lagging PF is any PF that is less than 100%, inductive kVAR, and is typical in commercial and industrial facilities. Leading PF, capacitive kVAR, is any PF that is greater than 100%. Leading PF is typically an undesirable electric condition for a variety of reasons. The variation in the reactive power component has no effect on the real power required by the load. Reactive power does have an effect on the kVA supplying the load and can make the load on the generator larger than necessary. Fixed capacitors on the main electric service are a common method to correct lagging PF. Facilities with large motors may also locate capacitors at motors, helping reduce conductor and transformer current load up to the motor.

Power factor and motor efficiency

Since reactive power does not perform any work, PF indicates the percentage of useful energy from the total energy and is best when it s as close to unity as possible. Low PF can contribute to low efficiency, higher losses, and unnecessary electric utility charges.

Induction motors require both real and reactive power to operate. The real power (kW) produces work and heat. The reactive power (kVAR) establishes the magnetic field in the motor that enables it to operate.

The PF of a motor is lower when the motor is under-loaded and is significantly reduced when the motor load is less than 70%. Closely matching the motor to the load is the best way to keep the PF close to the motor design rating, which is typically 80% to 85% PF.

Motor system power factor improvement project

I recently conducted a motor system, PF improvement project at a small industrial process plant with a significant amount of large motor load. At the time of the study, the aggregate plant peak demand was 480kW with an 85% PF, resulting in a $276 average monthly electric utility PF charge.

The objective of the project was to identify motors contributing to the less-than-desirable PF and improve the plant PF to avoid future PF charges. A process line, consisting of five induction motors (75 hp, 150 hp, 200 hp, and two at 125 hp) was identified to monitor the power use and PF of each motor in the process during a normal production cycle. A power monitor collected the data, and its associated software package was used to analyze the data. The Table shows a summary of the monitoring findings.

The power monitor measurements indicated all of the motors were under-loaded, which was driving the motor PF on M1 and M2 significantly below the nameplate rating. The findings also suggested the entire process line is oversized based on normal production. Under-loaded motors operate below nameplate PF, as seen in the Figure .

System improvement measures

To avoid electric utility PF charges, the plant needed to be at or above 90% PF. After careful analysis, discussion, and consideration, it was decided to reconfigure the process in a way that would allow 75-hp motor M1 to be removed. M1 was only 41% loaded and using inductive kVAR at 63% PF. There would also be some diversified kW demand reduction and possible energy savings by removing M1. Although demand and energy savings were difficult to calculate because the work that M1 was performing was transferred to motor M4 in the process, M4 had capacity to absorb the load from M1. There was also potential to improve the efficiency and PF of M4 with the load addition, effectively reducing the inductive kVAR contribution of M4.

Another improvement to the motor system was analyzed and determined to be a cost-effective measure to implement. It was decided to add 50 kVAR of capacitance at 200-hp motor M2. Based on the loading and PF measurements of M2, adding the capacitive kVAR would not correct the M2 PF above 90% but would provide enough capacitive kVAR, along with the M1 and M4 improvements, to bring the overall plant to 90% PF.

The results

The improvement measures implemented resulted in a plant PF of 93%, eliminating the $276 monthly PF charges. The measures also resulted in an average monthly plant peak demand reduction of 10kW a $90 monthly savings. The project payback was less than 18 months. Note: The plant had an existing, functioning 200 kVAR fixed capacitor in place at the main electric service entrance for PF support before this project began. This capacitor remains in place.

Considerations

There is a wide range of barriers that affect the implementation of motor system efficiency measures, including operating issues that affect decisions regarding allocation of resources. Motor system improvement results support the need to create plant level knowledge and tools necessary to improve motor systems. Decision leaders reviewing motor management practices need to decide their adequacy in satisfying improved effectiveness and cost savings goals that most leaders are faced with. Improvements to motor system management, purchasing, and training can lead to significant, sustainable savings. Considering the initial price of a motor only represents approximately 2% of its life-time operating cost, enormous savings potential exists.

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K – N Replacement Air Filters are Reusable – Designed to Add Power to Your Vehicle #auto #everything


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K N Replacement Air Filters

  • Designed to Increase Horsepower
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  • Lasts up to 50,000 Miles Between Servicing

Automotive Air Filters

K N automotive replacement air filters are designed to add horsepower and acceleration to your vehicle while providing exceptional engine protection. K N replacement air filters are simple to install and backed by the K N Million Mile Limited Warranty. Not only are K N air filters washable and reusable, they can last up to 50,000 miles between servicing, depending on driving conditions.

K N Air Filter History

K N Filters has been designing and manufacturing performance air filters since 1969. We have designed and manufactured over 2400 high flow air filters to fit most of the latest passenger vehicles and over 500 performance air intake systems for automotive and motorcycle owners interested in increasing vehicle horsepower and acceleration. K N also makes thousands of racing and specialty type air filters and we are the #1 Filter in NASCAR .

K N automotive OE (original equipment) replacement air filters generally add 1 to 4 horsepower to your vehicle, due to the unique characteristics of our filter media. K N air filter media was originally developed in the dust, sweat and tears of desert motocross racing. K N air filters were created for an environment that required maximum horsepower and acceleration while protecting the engine from the dirt and dust of off-road racing. This resulted in an air filter designed to achieve high, virtually unrestricted air flow while protecting your engine for the life of your vehicle. K N washable and reusable air filters are made up of four to six layers of cotton gauze layered between two sheets of epoxy-coated wire mesh. The media is pleated and oiled to enhance overall filtration and performance.

Air Filter Filtration Engine Protection

K N air filters offer an optimal blend of high air flow, filtration efficiency, durability and dust capacity. K N high flow filter media has been tested in our own in-house laboratories and by independent labs using the ISO5011 air filtration standard developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers. Our goal at K N is to design air filters with the most possible airflow while providing guaranteed engine protection.

K N Air Filter Oil

A K N air filter is designed with four to six layers of cotton gauze media sandwiched between two aluminum wire screens. The cotton media is then treated with a specially formulated grade of filter oil that causes tackiness throughout the cotton’s microscopic strands. The cotton in a K N air filter allows high volumes of airflow, and when combined with the tackiness of the filter oil creates an efficient filtering media that ensures engine protection.

K N Air Filter Testing

K N is dedicated to providing quality air filter products that meet or exceed your high performance and high filtration demands. K N uses independent testing labs in addition to conducting tests using our own state-of-the-art in-house testing laboratory. The quality of K N air filters can also be seen outside the laboratory. Carl Judice, of New Iberia, Louisiana, drove more than one million miles with a single K N air filter installed in his three-quarter ton Chevy pickup. Carl points out that he has never had to rebuild the engine or remove the cylinder head from his trusty pickup truck. Customer satisfaction along with real-world testing doesn’t get any better than that.

Lifetime Reusable Air Filters

K N washable and reusable air filters are handmade in the USA and United Kingdom using only the finest materials. It is almost impossible to wash your K N air filter or air cleaner too much. K N washed and re-oiled one K N air filter more than 100 times, inside our testing laboratory, and it still performs up to specification. K N air filters can go up to 50,000 miles between cleaning, depending on your driving conditions. To clean and re-oil your K N air filter, use a K N Air Filter Cleaning Kit and use the easy to follow instructions.

Air Filter Fuel Economy

Fuel economy testing and mileage claims are not as cut and dry as they may seem. The EPA’s website states, “EPA’s fuel economy estimates are designed to allow consumers to comparison shop. Your fuel economy will almost certainly vary from EPA’s fuel economy rating. This is based on a number of factors, such as weather, road conditions, your driving and maintenance habits, and your use of air conditioning.” Many exaggerated claims are found in the marketplace by automotive products claiming to improve vehicle gas mileage. K N does not make any general fuel economy claims. We simply encourage you to try our air filter products for yourself.

K N Million Mile Limited Warranty

K N warrants its street vehicle OE (original equipment) replacement air filters for one million miles. If used properly and found to be defective, return your filter with the receipt from purchase and K N will replace it free of charge. Visit the K N Million Mile Limited Warranty page for more details.

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Consumer Protection Pledge

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